At their summer meeting in Finland in 2007, the five Nordic Prime Ministers decided to strengthen efforts related to Nordic research and innovation. They asked the Nordic Council of Ministers to draw up a proposal that would promote Nordic top-level research in close cooperation with trade and industry. The Nordic Prime Ministers met again in April 2008 at the Riksgränsen ski resort in Sweden, where they drew up the Riksgränsen Declaration which laid the foundation for the largest joint Nordic effort to promote research and innovation ever undertaken, focusing on climate, energy and the environment. The Prime Ministers’ pioneering Nordic cooperative effort became the Top-level Research Initiative. This book describes some of the important results from the initiative.