JustEd policy implications: Referencer

1. Market-based and privatization policy reforms in education do not support the social, regional, and institutional equality that is central to the Nordic model.

1.1. Policymakers at national and local levels need to actively prevent and counteract the effects of school choice policies that lead to social segregation between and within schools.

MOST IMPORTANT REFERENCES 1.1:

Dovemark, M., Kosunen, S., Kauko, J., Magnúsdóttir, B., Hansen, P., & Rasmussen, P. (2018). Deregulation, privatisation and marketization of Nordic comprehensive education: social changes reflected in schooling. Education Inquiry, 9(1), 122-141.
https://doi.org/10.1080/20004508.2018.1429768

Lundahl, L., Erixon Arreman, I., Holm, A. S., & Lundström, U. (2013). Educational marketization the Swedish way. Education Inquiry, 4(3), 497-517.
https://doi.org/10.3402/edui.v4i3.22620

Varjo, J. T., Kalalahti, M., & Lundahl, L. (2016). Recognizing and Controlling the Social Cost of school Choice. In G. Noblit, & W. Pink (Eds.) Education, Equity, Economy: Crafting a New Intersection (pp. 73–94). Springer. 
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-21644-7_4

All references 1.1:

Alexiadou N., & Essex J. (2016). Teacher education for inclusive practice: Responding to policy. European Journal of Teacher Education, 39(1), 5-19.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2015.1031338

Alexiadou, N., Dovemark, M., Erixon Arreman, I., Holm, A-S., Lundahl, L., & Lundström, U. (2016). Managing inclusion in competitive school systems: The cases of Sweden and England. Research in Comparative and International Education, 11(1), 1-21.
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1745499916631065

Alexiadou, N., & Lundahl, L. (2016). Reforming Swedish education through New Public Management and quasi-markets. In H. M. Gunter, E. Grimaldi, D. Hall and R. Serpieri (Eds.), New public management and the reform of education: European lessons for policy and practice (pp. 66-80). Abdingon, Oxon: Routledge.
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Nafsika_Alexiadou2/publication/306038860_Reforming_Swedish_education_by_introduction_of_quasi-markets_and_competition/links/57ac45f008ae42ba52b1f9d9/Reforming-Swedish-education-by-introduction-of-quasi-markets-and-competition.pdf

Dovemark, M. (2017). Utbildning till salu – konkurrens, differentiering och varumärke. Utbildning & Demokrati, 26(1).
https://www.oru.se/globalassets/oru-sv/forskning/forskningsmiljoer/hs/humus/utbildning-och-demokrati/2017/nr-1/marianne-dovemark---utbildning-till-salu.pdf

Dovemark, M., & Beach, D. (2018). Skolan, marknaden och prekariatet. In M. Dahlstedt & A. Fejes (Eds.), Skolan, marknaden och framtiden (pp. 187-202). Lund: Studentlitteratur.

Dovemark, M., & Holm, A-S. (2015). Förortens skola – möjligheternas skola? Utbildning och lärande, 9(1), 62-78. 
https://www.his.se/PageFiles/35404/Dovemark%20Holm%20-%20F%C3%B6rortens%20skola.pdf

Dovemark, M., & Holm, A-S. (2015). Pedagogic identities for sale! Segregation and homogenization in Swedish upper secondary school. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 38(4), 518-532.
DOI: 10.1080/01425692.2015.1093405
https://doi.org/10.1080/01425692.2015.1093405

Dovemark, M., & Holm, A-S. (2017). The performative culture in Swedish schools and how teachers cope with it. In K. Borgnakke, M. Dovemark, & S. Marques (Eds.), The Post Modern Professional: contemporary practices, dilemmas and perspectives (pp. 35 – 52). London: Tufnell Press.

Dovemark, M., & Erixon Arreman, I. (2017). The implications of school marketisation for students enrolled on Introductory programmes in Swedish upper secondary schools. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 1-14.
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1746197916683466

Dovemark, M., Kosunen, S., Kauko, J., Hansen, P., Magnúsdóttir, B., & Rasmussen, P. (2018). Deregulation, Privatisation, and Marketisation of Nordic Comprehensive Education: Social Changes Reflected in Schooling. Education Inquiry, 9(1), 122-141.
https://doi.org/10.1080/20004508.2018.1429768

Dovemark, M., & Lundström, U. (2017). Skolan och marknaden. Utbildning & Demokrati26(1), 5-18.
https://www.oru.se/globalassets/oru-sv/forskning/forskningsmiljoer/hs/humus/utbildning-och-demokrati/2017/nr-1/temainledning-skola-och-marknaden---dovemark--lundstrom.pdf

Erixon Arreman, I. (2014). Student Perceptions of New Differentiation Policies in Swedish Post-16 Education. European Educational Research Journal, 13(6), 616-631. 
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.2304/eerj.2014.13.6.616

Erixon Arreman, I., & Dovemark, M. (2017). Social Justice in Swedish Post-16 Education? New preparatory programmes. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00313831.2016.1258672

Hannukainen K., & Brunila, K. (2017). ”Jokainen verissä päin sitä omaa edistää” - Tutkijakoulutus, tieto ja tutkijuus tietokapitalismissa. Aikuiskasvatus, 38(2), 96–107.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320271751_Jokainen_verissa_pain_sita_omaa_edistaa_Tutkijakoulutus_tieto_ja_tutkijuus_tietokapitalismissa

Holm, A-S. (2013). A sea of options. Student perspectives on market competition in upper-secondary schools in Sweden. Nordic Studies in Education33, 284-299. 
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/250396237_Safe_space_Student_perspectives_on_classroom_environment

Holm, A-S. (2017). En friskolas uppgång och fall. Utbildning & Demokrati, 26(1), 87-105.
https://www.oru.se/globalassets/oru-sv/forskning/forskningsmiljoer/hs/humus/utbildning-och-demokrati/2017/nr-1/ann-sofie-holm-en-skolkoncerns-uppgang-och-fall.pdf

Holm, A-S., & Lundahl, L. (2018). Stimulerande tävlan på gymnasiemarknaden? In M. Dahlstedt & A. Fejes (reds), Skolan, marknaden och framtiden (pp. 51-70). Lund: Studentlitteratur.

Lidström, L., Holm, A-S., & Lundström, U. (2014). Maximising opportunities and minimising risks. Young people’s upper secondary school choices in Swedish quasi-markets. Nordic Journal of Youth Research, 22(1), 1-19.
http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1103308813512932

Lundahl, L. (2017). Marketization of the urban educational space. In W. T. Pink & G. W. Noblit (Eds) Second international handbook of urban education (pp. 671-693). Cham: Springer.
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-40317-5_36

Lundahl, L., Erixon Arreman, I., Holm, A. S., & Lundström, U. (2013). Educational marketization the Swedish way. Education Inquiry, 4(3), 497-517.
https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3402/edui.v4i3.22620

Lundahl, L., Erixon Arreman, I., Holm, A-S., & Lundström, U. (2014). Gymnasiet som marknad. Umeå: Boréa Bokförlag.

Lundahl, L., Lindblad, M., Lovén, A., Mårald, G., & Svedberg, G. (2017). No particular way to go: careers of young adults lacking upper secondary qualifications. Journal of Education and Work, 30(1), 39–52.
https://doi.org/10.1080/13639080.2015.1122179

Lundahl, L., & Olofsson, J. (2014). Guarded transitions? Youth trajectories and school-to-work transition policies in Sweden. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 19(Suppl 1), 19–34.
https://doi.org/10.1080/02673843.2013.852593

Lundahl, L., & Olson, M. (2013). Democracy lessons in market-oriented schools: The case of Swedish upper secondary education. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 8(2), 201–213.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1746197913483684

Lundström, U. (2015). Teacher autonomy in the era of New Public Management. Nordic Journal of Studies in Education Policy, 1(2), 73-85.
https://doi.org/10.3402/nstep.v1.28144

Lundström, U. (2017). Att mäta det vi värderar eller värdera det vi kan mäta? Resultatindikatorer som grund för skolval. Utbildning & Demokrati, 26(1), 43-66.
https://www.oru.se/globalassets/oru-sv/forskning/forskningsmiljoer/hs/humus/utbildning-och-demokrati/2017/nr-1/ulf-lundstrom---att-mata-det-vi-varderar-eller-vardera-det-vi-kan-mata.pdf

Lundström, U., Holm, A.-S., & Erixon Arreman, I. (2017). Rektor i skärningspunkten mellan likvärdighet och skolmarknad. Utbildning & Demokrati, 26(1), 19-41.
https://www.oru.se/globalassets/oru-sv/forskning/forskningsmiljoer/hs/humus/utbildning-och-demokrati/2017/nr-1/lundstrom-holm--erixon-arreman---rektor-i-skarningspunkten-mellan-likvardighet-och-skolmarknad.pdf

Lundström, U., & Rönnberg, L. (2015). Att styra skolan med marknaden som förebild. In S. Lindblad & L. Lundahl (Eds.), Utbildning - makt och politik. Lund: Studentlitteratur.

Uljens, M., Wolff, L-A., &  Frontini, S. (2016). Finland: NPM resistance or towards European neo-welfarism in education? In H. M. Gunter, E. Grimaldi, E., D. Hall & R. Serpieri (Eds.), New Public Management and the Reform of Education: European lessons for policy and practice (39-52). London: Routledge.

Uljens, M., Wolff, L-A., &  Frontini, S. (2016). Finland: NPM resistance or towards European neo-welfarism in education? In  H. M. Gunter, E. Grimaldi, E., D. Hall & R. Serpieri (Eds.), New Public Management and the Reform of Education: European lessons for policy and practice (pp. 39-52). London: Routledge.

Varjo, J. T., Kalalahti, M., & Lundahl, L. (2016). Recognizing and Controlling the Social Cost of school Choice. In G. Noblit, & W. Pink (Eds.), Education, Equity, Economy: Crafting a New Intersection (pp. 73–94). Springer.
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-21644-7_4

Varjo, J., & Kalalahti, M. (2016). Koulumarkkinoiden valjastajat – kunta ja kouluvalinnan yhteiskunnallinen hinta. [Harnessing the school markets – municipalities and the social cost of school choice]. Yhteiskuntapolitiikka [Social and Public Policy], 81(6), 644–654.
https://www.julkari.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/132299/YP1606_Varjo%26Kalalahti.pdf?sequence=1

Varjo, J., & Kalalahti, M. (2015). The Conceivable Benefits of Being Comprehensive: Finnish Local Education Authorities on Recognising and Controlling the Social Costs of School Choice. European Educational Research Journal, 14(3-4), 312–330.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1474904115589036

Wolff, L-A., Sjöblom, P., Hofman-Bergholm, & M., Palmberg, I. (2017). High performance education fails in sustainability? The case of Finnish teacher education. Education Sciences, 7(32), 1-23. 
https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci7010032

1.2. Policymakers need to see higher education as a public good and provide uniformly high-quality resources to higher education institutions in order to limit the effects of market-driven funding and steering policies on institutional stratification and social bias in access.

MOST IMPORTANT REFERENCES 1.2:

Brunila, K., Ikävalko, E., Kurki, T., Masoud, A., Mertanen, K., Mikkola, A., & Mäkelä, K. (2017). Transitions, Justice and Equity in Education. Oxford Encyclopedia of Education. Oxford University Press. On line publication date March 2017.
http://education.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.001.0001/acrefore-9780190264093-e-130

Isopahkala-Bouret, U. (2018). Stratification through a binary degree structure in Finnish higher education. In B. Roland, A. Mitterle, C. Paradeise & T. Peter (Eds.), The Production of Elites and the Making of Elite Universities (pp.  83-101)London: Palgrave McMillan.

Isopahkala-Bouret, U., Börjesson, M., Beach, D., Haltia, N., Jónasson, J. T., Jauhiainen, An., Jauhiainen, Ar., Kosunen, S., Nori, H., & Vabø, A. (2018). Access and stratification in Nordic higher education. A review of cross-cutting research themes and issues. Education Inquiry, 9(1), 142-154. DOI: 10.1080/20004508.2018.1429769
https://doi.org/10.1080/20004508.2018.1429769

All references 1.2:

Ahola, S., Hedmo, T., Thomsen, J-P., & Vabø, A. (Eds.) (2014). Organisational features of higher education: Denmark, Finland, Norway & Sweden. Oslo: Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU). 
http://hdl.handle.net/11250/2358908

Beach, D., & Puaca, G. (2014). Changing higher education by converging policy-packages: education choices and student identities. European Journal of Higher Education, 4(1), 67–79.
https://doi.org/10.1080/21568235.2013.862155

Isopahkala-Bouret, U. (2015). It’s Considered a Second Class Thing’. The Differences in Status between Traditional and Newly Established Higher Education Credentials. Studies in Higher Education, 40(7), 1291-1306.   
https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2014.881339

Isopahkala-Bouret, U. (2018). Stratification through a binary degree structure in Finnish higher education. In B. Roland, A. Mitterle, C. Paradeise & T. Peter (Eds.) The Production of Elites and the Making of Elite Universities (pp. 83-101). Palgrave McMillan. 
https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-53970-6_4

Isopahkala-Bouret, U., Börjesson, M., Beach, D., Haltia, N., Jónasson, J. T., Jauhiainen An., Jauhiainen Ar., Kosunen, S., Nori, H., & Vabø, A. (2017). Access and stratification in Nordic higher education. A review of cross-cutting research themes and issues. Education Inquiry, 9(1), 142-154. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/20004508.2018.1429769

Jauhiainen, An., Jauhiainen, Ar., Laiho, A., & Lehto (2015). Fabrications, Time-Consuming Bureaucracy and Moral Dilemmas — Finnish University Employees’ Experiences on the Governance of University Work. Higher Education Policy, 28(3), 393-410.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1057/hep.2014.18

Kauko, J., & Medvedeva, A. (2016). Internationalisation as marketisation? Tuition fees for international students in Finland. Research in Comparative and International Education, 11(1), 98–114.
https://doi.org/10.1177/1745499916631061

Kosunen, S., Haltia, N., & Jokila, S. (2015). Valmennuskurssit ja mahdollisuuksien tasa-arvo yliopistokoulutukseen hakeutumisessa [Preparatory courses and equity in university admission]. Kasvatus 46(4), 334–348.
http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:ELE-1770935

Rinne, R., Jauhiainen, A., & Kankaanpää, J. (2014). Surviving in the ruins of the university? - Lost autonomy and collapsed dreams in the Finnish transition of university policies. Nordic Studies in Education 34(3), 213–232.
https://www.idunn.no/np/2014/03/surviving_in_the_ruins_of_the_university_-_lost_autonomy_a

Wolff, L-A. (2016). Adult education in an unsustainable era. In A. Harju & A. Heikkinen (Eds.), Adult Education and the Planetary Condition (pp. 194-209). Helsinki: Finnish Adult Education Association. 
https://issuu.com/svv-ohjelma/docs/adult_educ_planetary_cond_2016

2. In order for teachers, pupils, and schools to promote equity in education, discrimination and marginalization need to be addressed specifically and explicitly in local and national curricula, other steering documents, as well as in teacher education.

2.1. Teachers need knowledge and tools to identify, challenge, and change norms and power structures in order to prevent marginalization and to support inclusion.

MOST IMPORTANT REFERENCES 2.1:

Juva, I., & Holm, G. (2016). Not All Students are equally equal: Normality as Finnishness. In K. Kantasalmi & G. Holm (Eds.), The State, Schooling, and Identity: Diversifying Education in Europe (pp. 213-232). Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-1515-1_11

Mikander, P., Zilliacus, H., & Holm, G. (2018). Intercultural education: Nordic perspectives. Education Inquiry, 9(1), 40-56 
https://doi.org/10.1080/20004508.2018.1433432

Nylund, M., Rosvall, P-Å., Eiríksdóttir, E., Holm, A-S., Isopahkala-Bouret, U., Niemi, A-M., & Ragnarsdóttir, G. (2018). The academic–vocational divide in three Nordic countries: implications for social class and gender. Education Inquiry 9(1), 97-121. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/20004508.2018.1424490

Pihl, J., Holm, G., Riitaoja, A-L., & Kjaran, J. I. (2018). Nordic discourses on marginalisation through education. Education Inquiry, 9(1), 22-39. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/20004508.2018.1428032

All references 2.1:

Beach, D., From, T., Johansson, M., & Öhrn, E. (2018). Education and spatial justice in rural and urban areas in three Nordic countries: A meta-ethnographic analysis. Education Inquiry, 9(1), 4-21.
https://doi.org/10.1080/20004508.2018.1430423

Juva, I. S. M, & Vaahtera, T. E. (2017). Getting Along – Social Skills Required To Be Normal in Finnish School. In Vaahtera, T., Niemi, A-M., Lappalainen, S. & Beach, D. (Eds.), Troubling Educational Cultures in the Nordic Countries (pp. 52-67). Tufnell press.

Juva, I., & Holm, G. (2016). Not All Students are equally equal: Normality as Finnishness. In K. Kantasalmi & G. Holm (Eds.), The State, Schooling, and Identity: Diversifying Education in Europe (pp. 213-232). Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-1515-1_11

Kjaran, J. I., & Lehtonen, J. (2017). Windows of opportunities: Nordic perspectives on sexual diversity in education. International Journal of Inclusive Education
https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2017.1414319

Lehtonen, J. (2017). Troubling normativities? Constructing sexual and gender diversity in the educational work of Finnish LGBTI human rights association Seta. In T. Vaahtera, A-M. Niemi, S. Lappalainen & D. Beach (Eds.), Troubling educational cultures in the Nordic countries (pp. 117-139). London: The Tufnell Press.

Lehtonen, J., Palmu, T., & Lahelma, E. (2014). Negotiating Sexualities, Constructing Possibilities: Teachers and Diversity. In M-P. Moreau (Eds.) Inequalities in the Teaching Profession. A Global Perspective (pp. 118-135). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137328601_7

Mikander, P., Zilliacus, H., & Holm, G. (2018). Intercultural education in transition: Nordic perspectives. Education Inquiry, 9(1), 40-56.
https://doi.org/10.1080/20004508.2018.1433432

Mikander, P. (2016). Westerners and others in Finnish school textbooks. PhDiss, Helsinki: University of Helsinki. 
https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f3e5/162cca7ba61f251c39ecba78dfaa10c847fa.pdf

Mikander, P. (2017). Using postcolonial discourse analysis in social science education: Troubling hierarchical human relations. In T. Vaahtera, A-M. Niemi, S. Lappalainen & D. Beach (Eds.).Troubling educational cultures in the Nordic countries (pp. 180-194). London: Tufnell Press.

Pihl, J. (2015). Epistemological and Methodological Challenges in Research Concerning Youth at the Margins. In S. Bastien & H. B. Holmarsdottir (Eds.), Youth 'at the Margins': Experiences from Engaging Youth in Research Worldwide (pp. 42-63). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6300-052-9_3

Rosvall, P-Å., & Öhrn, E. (2014). Teachers’ silences about racist attitudes and students’ desires to address these attitudes. Intercultural Education, 25(5), 337-348. 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14675986.2014.967972

Zacheus, T., Kalalahti, M., & Varjo, J. (2017). Cultural minorities in Finnish opportunity structures. Research on Finnish Society, 10, 132–144. https://helda.helsinki.fi//bitstream/handle/10138/230812/RFS2017_Zacheus_etal.pdf?sequence=1

Zacheus, T., Kalalahti, M., Varjo, J., Saarinen, M., Jahnukainen, M., Mäkelä, M.,-L., & Kivirauma, J. (2017). Yläkouluikäisten syrjinnän, kiusaamisen ja rasismin kokemukset [Experiences of discrimination, harassment, and racism in lower secondary school], Terra 129(1), 3–15.
http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:ELE-1811635

Zilliacus, H., Holm, G., & Sahlström, F. (2017). Taking steps towards institutionalising multicultural education – The national curriculum of Finland, Multicultural Education Review, 9(4), 231–248. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/2005615X.2017.1383810

Zilliacus, H., Paulsrud, B., & Holm, G. (2017). Essentializing vs. non-essentializing students’ cultural identities: curricular discourses in Finland and Sweden. Multicultural Discourses. Journal of Multicultural Discourses, 12(2), 166–180. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/17447143.2017.1311335

2.2. Educational marginalization based on disability, social class, gender, ethnicity, as well as stigmatization of residential areas need to be explicitly addressed in educational policy, research, and practice.

MOST IMPORTANT REFERENCES 2.2:

Beach, D. (2017). Whose justice is this! Capitalism, class and education justice and inclusion in the Nordic countries: race, space and class history. Educational Review, 69(5), 620-637. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/00131911.2017.1288609

Hakala, K., Björnsdottir, K., Jóhannesson, I.A., Lappalainen, S., & Teittinen, A. (2018). Nordic perspectives on disability studies in education: a review of research in Finland and Iceland. Education Inquiry, 9(1), 78-96.  https://doi.org/10.1080/20004508.2017.1421390

Hohti, R. (2018. Siiri and the “Bag Lady”: Analysing the Material Entanglements of Special Needs. Reconceptualizing Educational Research Methodology, 9(1), 6-16.
https://doi.org/10.7577/rerm.2698

All references 2.2:

Angervall, P., & Beach, D. (2017). The Exploitation of Academic Work: Women in Teaching at Swedish Universities. Higher Education Policy, 31(1), 1-17.
https://link.springer.com/article/10.1057/s41307-017-0041-0

Angervall, P., & Beach, D. (2017). Dividing academic work: gender and academic career at Swedish universities. Gender and Education.  
https://doi.org/10.1080/09540253.2017.1401047

Angervall, P., & Beach, D. (2017). Akademins ”hemmafruar”: Om kvinnliga lektorers arbete i högskolans service- och tjänstesektor. In M. Agnafors (Ed.), Universitet AB. Om kommodifiering, marknad och akademi, (pp. 93-116). Göteborg: Didalos.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320427837_Akademins_hemmafruar_Om_kvinnliga_lektorers_arbete_i_hogskolans_service-_och_tjanstesektor

Angervall, P.,  Beach, D., & Gustafsson, J. (2015). The unacknowledged value of female academic labour power for male research careers. Higher Education Research and Development, 34(5), 815-827. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2015.1011092

Bagley, C., & Beach, D. (2015). The marginalisation of social justice as a form of knowledge in teacher education in England. Policy Futures in Education, 13(4), 424–438.
https://doi.org/10.3402/edui.v1i4.21946

Beach, D. (2017). Justice in Education in the Nordic Countries: Perspectives, Challenges and Possibilities. In K. Kantasalmi & G. Holm (Eds.) The State, Schooling, and identity: Diversifying Education in Europe (pp. 193-212). Singapore: Palgrave MacMillan.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-1515-1_10

Beach, D. (2017). Personalisation and the education commodity: a meta-ethnographic analysis. Ethnography and Education, 12(2), 148-164.
https://doi.org/10.1080/17457823.2016.1247738

Beach, D. (2017). Whose justice is this! Capitalism, class and education justice and inclusion in the Nordic countries: race, space and class history. Educational Review, 69(5), 620-637.

Beach D., & Dyson, A. (Eds.).(2016). Equity and education in cold climates. London: Tufnell.

Dovemark, M., & Beach, D. (2015). Academic work on a back-burner: Habituating students in the upper-secondary school towards marginality and a life in the precariat, International Journal of Inclusive Education, 19(6), 583-594.
https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2014.961676

Dovemark, M., & Beach, D. (2016). From learning to labour to learning for precarity, Ethnography and Education, 11(2), 174-188.
https://doi.org/10.1080/17457823.2015.1114422

Dovemark, M., & Beach, D. (2018). Skolan, marknad och prekariatet. I M. Dahlstedt & A. Fejes (Eds.) Skolan marknaden och framtiden (pp. 187-202). Lund: Studentlitteratur.

Eri, T., & Pihl, J. (2016). The challenge of sustaining change: contradictions within the development of teacher and librarian collaboration. Educational Action Research, 25(2), 239-255. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/09650792.2016.1147366

Hakala, K. (2017). Työllistymistarinoita. [Stories of employment] Kehitysvammaliiton selvityksiä 13. http://www.kehitysvammaliitto.fi/wp-content/uploads/tyollistymistarinoita-netti-s.pdf

Hakala, K. (2014). ”Kyllä ihmisoikeuksissa olis parantamisen varaa!” Itsenäisen elämän haasteita vammaispalveluissa. Kehitysvammaliiton tutkimuksia 9. [“There is much to do to improve human rights!” Challenges in the independent living in disability services. Studies of Finnish Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 9.]

Hakala, K., Björnsdottir, K., Jóhannesson, I. Á., Lappalainen, S., & Teittinen, A. (2018). Nordic perspectives on disability studies in education: a review of research in Finland and Iceland, Education Inquiry, 9(1), 78-96. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/20004508.2017.1421390

Hjelmér, C., Lappalainen, S., & Rosvall, P-Å. (2014). Young people and spatial divisions in upper secondary education: A cross-cultural perspective. In A-L. Arnesen, E. Lahelma, L. Lundahl & E. Öhrn (Eds.) Fair and competitive? Critical perspectives on contemporary Nordic schooling. London: Tufnell Press.

Hohti, R. (2016). Children writing ethnography: children's perspectives and nomadic thinking in researching school classrooms. Ethnography and Education, 11(1), 74-90. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/17457823.2015.1040428

Hohti, R., & Karlsson, L. (2013). Lollipop Stories: Listening to children’s voices in the classroom and narrative ethnographical research. Childhood, 21(4), 548-562.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0907568213496655

Hohti, R. (2016). Classroom matters: Research with children as entanglement Helsinki, PhDiss University of Helsinki.
https://helda.helsinki.fi/bitstream/handle/10138/161118/Classroo.pdf?sequence=1

Hohti, R. (2018. Siiri and the “Bag Lady”: Analysing the Material Entanglements of Special Needs. Reconceptualizing Educational Research Methodology, 9(1), 6-16.
https://doi.org/10.7577/rerm.2698

Jonsson, A-C., & Beach, D. (2015). Institutional discrimination: Stereotypes and social reproduction of “class” in the Swedish upper-secondary school. Social Psychology of Education, 18(4), 703-717.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11218-014-9279-1

Kauppila, A., & Lappalainen, S. (2015). Vammais- ja koulutuspolitiikan risteyksessä rakentuvan kansalaisuuden paradoksi [The paradox of citizenship in the crossroad of disability and education policy]. Finnish Journal of Education, 46(2), 129–142.

Lahelma, E., Lappalainen, S., Mietola, R., & Palmu, T. (2014). Discussions that ‘tickle our brains’: Constructing interpretations through multiple ethnographic data sets. Ethnography & Education, 9(1), 51-65. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/17457823.2013.828476

Lahelma, E., Lappalainen, S., Palmu, T., & Pehkonen, L. (2014). Vocational teachers' gendered reflections on education, teaching and care. Gender & Education, 26(3), 293-305. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/09540253.2014.901734

Lappalainen, S. (2017). Educating ‘Euro-citizens’: a study of a vocational upper programme of health care and social services in a Finnish (sub)urban setting. In E. Öhrn & G. Weiner (Eds.), Handbook of Urban Education. Springer.

Lappalainen, S. & Lahelma, E. (2016). Subtle discourses on equality in the Finnish curricula of upper secondary education: reflections of the imagine society. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 48(5), 650-670.
https://doi.org/10.1080/00220272.2015.1069399

Lappalainen, S., Lahelma, E., Mietola, R., & Palmu, T. (2015). Problematizing evaluative categorisations in Estonia and Finland: collaborative and multi-sited interpretations on constructions of normality. In P. Smeyers, D. Bridges, N. Burbules & M. Griffiths (Eds.), International Handbook of Interpretation in Educational Research Methods (pp. 843-864). Springer. 
DOI 10.1007/978-94-017-9282-0_40
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/302583124_48_Problematizing_Evaluative_Categorizations_Collaborative_and_Multisited_Interpretations_of_Constructions_of_Normality_in_Estonia_and_Finland

Lappalainen, S. (2014). Locality, mobility and labour market citizenship: Reflections of Finnish vocational students in social services and health care. Pedagogy, Culture and Society, 22(3), 425-445. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/14681366.2014.914966

Mietola, R., Kauppila, A., & Niemi, A-M. (2017). Pääkirjoitus: Nuorisotutkimusta vammaisuudesta, vammaistutkimusta nuoruudesta. [Editorial: Youth and disability]. Nuoruus ja vammaisuus -teemanumero, Nuorisotutkimuslehti [Youth and disability -special issue, Finnish Journal of Youth Studies] 35(4), 1-5.

Mietola, R., Berg, P., Hakala, K., Lahelma, E., Lappalainen, S., Salo, U-M., & Tolonen, T. (2016). Feministinen etnografia kasvatuksen kulttuureita jäljittämässä. [Feminist ethnography tracing educational cultures]. Nuorisotutkimus (Finnish journal on youth studies)  34(1), 4-17.
https://helda.helsinki.fi//bitstream/handle/10138/233067/feministinen_etnografia_nuorisotutkimus_1_2016.pdf?sequence=1

Mietola, R. (2014). Hankala erityisyys. Etnografinen tutkimus erityisopetuksen käytännöistä ja erityisyyden muotoutumisesta yläkoulun arjessa [Troubling special. An ethnographic study of special education and formation of special in the everyday life in lower secondary school]. PhDiss, Helsinki: University of Helsinki.

Niemi, A-M. (2014). Tuki, tarve, leima, oikeus? Erityisyyden muotoutuminen ammatillisen koulutuksen diskursseissa [Support, need, stigma or privilege? Discourses on special educational needs in the context of vocational upper secondary education]. Finnish Journal of Education, 45(4), 349–363. 
http://urn.fi/URN:NBN:fi:ELE-1693162

Niemi, A-M., & Kurki, T. (2014). Getting on the right track? Educational choice-making of students with special educational needs in pre-vocational education and training. Disability & Society, 29(10), 1631–1644. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/09687599.2014.966188

Niemi, A-M., & Mietola, R. (2017). Between hopes and possibilities. (Special) educational paths, agency and subjectivities. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 19(3), 218–229.
https://doi.org/10.1080/15017419.2016.1239588

Nylund, M., Rosvall, P-Å., & Ledman, K. (2017). The vocational–academic divide in neoliberal upper secondary curricula: the Swedish case. Journal of Education Policy 32(6). 788-808. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/02680939.2017.1318455

Nylund, M. & Rosvall, P-Å. (2016). A curriculum tailored for workers? Knowledge organization and possible transitions in Swedish VET. Journal of Curriculum Studies 48(5), 692-710. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/00220272.2016.1138325

Nylund, M. (2013). Yrkesutbildning, klass och kunskap. [Vocational Education, Class and Knowledge]. Örebro: Örebro Studies in Education 40. Örebro Studies in Educational Sciences with an Emphasis on Didactics 8.
https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:625069/FULLTEXT01.pdf

Pihl, J. (2015). Epistemological and Methodological Challenges in Research Concerning Youth at the Margins. In S. Bastien & H. B. Holmarsdottir (Eds.), Youth 'at the Margins': Experiences from Engaging Youth in Research Worldwide (pp. 42-63). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers. 
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6300-052-9_3

Pihl, J., Carlsten, C., & Van der Kooij, K. S. (2017). Why teacher and librarian partnerships in literacy education in the 21st Century? In J. Pihl, K. S. Van der Kooij & T. C. Carlsten (Eds.), Teacher and Librarian Partnerships in Literacy Education in the 21st Century (pp. 1-23). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6300-899-0_1

Pihl, J., Holm, G., Riitaoja, A-L., & Kjaran, J. I. (2018). Nordic discourses on marginalisation through education. Education Inquiry, 9(1), 22-39.
https://doi.org/10.1080/20004508.2018.1428032

Rosvall, P.-Å. & Hjelmér, C., & Lappalainen, S. (2017). Staying in the confort zones – Low expectations in vocational education and training mathematics teaching in Sweden and Finland. European Educational Research Journal, 16(4), 425-439. 
https://doi.org/10.1177/1474904116669154

Tammi, T., & Hohti, R. (2017). Lasten osallistuminen ja posthumanistinen ontologia: urittuvaa ja emergenttiä kartoittamassa. Kasvatus & Aika, 11(1), 69-83. 
http://elektra.helsinki.fi/oa/1797-2299/11/1/lastenos.pdf

Vaahtera, T., & Lappalainen, S. (2018). Bodies of Latent Potential: Abled Imaginary and National Belonging in Finnish Cultural Texts about Swimming. Pedagogy, Culture and Society.
https://doi.org/10.1080/14681366.2018.1431689

Vaahtera, T., Niemi, A.-M., & Lappalainen, S. (2017). Troubling Education in Nordic Countries. London: Tufnell Press.

Vaahtera, E. (2015). Biopolitics and the repressive hypothesis of the body: The case of swimming training in Finland. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 18(2), 142–153.
https://doi.org/10.1080/15017419.2015.1063538

2.3. Knowledge about gender and sexuality needs to be integral to teacher education, and resources are needed for teachers and schools for promoting gender sensitivity.

MOST IMPORTANT REFERENCES 2.3:

Kjaran, J. I., & Lehtonen, J. (2017). Windows of opportunities: Nordic perspectives on sexual diversity in education. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 1-13. Published online: 12 Dec 2017.
https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2017.1414319

Lahelma, E., Lappalainen, S., Palmu, T., & Pehkonen, L. (2014). Vocational teachers’ gendered reflections on education, teaching and care. Gender and Education, 26(3), 293-305. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/09540253.2014.901734

Lehtonen, J., Palmu, T., & Lahelma, E. (2014). Negotiating sexualities, constructing possibilities: Teachers and diversity. In M-P. Moreau (Eds.), Inequalities in the Teaching Profession: A Global Perspective (pp. 118-135). Palgrave Macmillan.
https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137328601_7

Öhrn, E., Asp-Onsjö, L., & Holm, A-S. (2017). Discourses on gender and achievement in lower secondary education. In K. Kantasalmi & G. Holm (Eds.), The State, Schooling and Identity: Diversifying Education in Europe (pp. 173-192). London: Palgrave Macmillan.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-1515-1_9

All references 2.3:

Arnesen, A-L., Lahelma, E., Lundahl, L., & Öhrn, E. (Eds.) (2014). Fair and competitive? Critical perspectives on contemporary Nordic schooling. London: Tufnell Press.

Asp Onsjö, L., & Öhrn, E. (2015). To pass the test: the timing of boys’ parallel positioning. Education Inquiry, 6(2), 141-157.
https://doi.org/10.3402/edui.v6.25466

Kjaran, J. I., & Lehtonen, J. (2017). Windows of opportunities: Nordic perspectives on sexual diversity in education. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 1-13. Published online: 12 Dec 2017.
https://doi.org/10.1080/13603116.2017.1414319

Lahelma, E. (2014). Troubling discourses on gender and education, Educational Research, 56(2), 171–183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00131881

Lahelma, E. (2015). Tackling the gender divide. Centre of Educational Research and Practice (CERP).
https://cerp.aqa.org.uk/perspectives/tackling-gender-divide

Lahelma, E., Lappalainen, S., Palmu, T., & Pehkonen, L. (2014). Vocational teachers’ gendered reflections on education, teaching and care. Gender and Education, 26(3), 293-305. DOI: 10.1080/09540253.2014.901734

Ledman, K., Rosvall, P-Å., & Nylund, M. (2017). Gendered distribution of ‘knowledge required for empowerment’ in Swedish vocational education curricula? Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 70(1), 85-106.
https://doi.org/10.1080/13636820.2017.1394358

Lehtonen, J. (2017). Troubling normativities? Constructing sexual and gender diversity in the educational work of Finnish LGBTI human rights association Seta. In T. Vaahtera, A-M. Niemi, S. Lappalainen & D. Beach (eds.) Troubling educational cultures in the Nordic countries (pp. 117-139). London: The Tufnell Press.

Lehtonen, J., Palmu, T., & Lahelma, E. (2014). Negotiating sexualities, constructing possibilities: Teachers and diversity. In M-P. Moreau (Eds.), Inequalities in the Teaching Profession: A Global Perspective (pp. 118-135). Palgrave Macmillan.
https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137328601_7

Nylund, M., Rosvall, P-Å., Eiríksdóttir, E., Holm, A-S., Isopahkala-Bouret, U., Niemi, A-M., & Ragnarsdóttir, G. (2018). The academic–vocational divide in three Nordic countries: implications for social class and gender. Education Inquiry, 9(1), 97-121. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/20004508.2018.1424490

Öhrn, E. (2015). Skolprestationer och kön. Om undervisning, ungdomsgrupper och lokala villkor. Resultatdialogen 2015 (p 271-282). Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet.

Öhrn, E., Asp-Onsjö, L., & Holm, A-S. (2017). Discourses on gender and achievement in lower secondary education. In K. Kantasalmi & G. Holm (Eds.), The State, Schooling and Identity: Diversifying Education in Europe (pp. 173-192). London: Palgrave Macmillan.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-1515-1_9

3. The challenge of balancing the pacing of content coverage, while at the same time providing flexibility and allowing room for student initiative and active engagement in the classroom, needs to be addressed in order to provide a quality education for pupils.

3.1. The Nordic educational systems would benefit from knowledge-sharing on pupil participation models.

MOST IMPORTANT REFERENCES 3.1:

Klette, K., Sahlström,F., Blikstad-Balas, M., Luoto, J., Tanner, M., Tengberg, M., Roe, A., & Slotte, A. (2018). Justice through participation: student engagement in Nordic classrooms, Education Inquiry, 9(1), 57-77
https://doi.org/10.1080/20004508.2018.1428036

All references 3.1:

Dalland, C., & Klette, K. (2016). Individual teaching methods: Work plans as a tool for promoting self-regulated learning in lower secondary classroom. Education Inquiry, 7(4), 381- 404.
https://doi.org/10.3402/edui.v7.28249

Klette, K., Sahlström, F., Blikstad-Balas, M., Luoto, J., Tanner, M., Tengberg, M., Roe, A., & Slotte, A. (2018). Justice through participation: student engagement in Nordic classrooms, Education Inquiry, 9(1), 57-77. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/20004508.2018.1428036

3.2. Upper secondary school students need more opportunities for initiative, autonomy, and influence over their education, both at the class and school levels.

MOST IMPORTANT REFERENCES 3.2 (SAME AS ALL REFERENCES FOR 3.2):

Bjarnadóttir, V., & Geirsdóttir, G. (2018). 'You know, nothing changes’. Students’ experiences in influencing pedagogic practices in various upper secondary schools in Iceland. Pedagogy, Culture and Society
https://doi.org/10.1080/14681366.2018.1439995

Eiríksdóttir, E. & Jóhannesson, I.Á. (2016). Sjónarmið stærðfræði- og verkgreinakennara í framhaldsskólum um hvaða öfl hafa áhrif á starfshætti: Námsmat og upplýsingatækni [Views of mathematics and vocational teachers in upper secondary schools about which forces impact assessment practices and the use of information technology]. Tímarit um uppeldi og menntun / Icelandic Journal of Education, 25(2), 197−218. https://ojs.hi.is/tuuom/article/view/2435/1319

Jóhannesson, I.Á., & Bjarnadóttir, V. (2016). Meaningful education for returning-to-school students in a comprehensive upper secondary school in Iceland. Critical Studies in Education, 57(1), 70–83. 
https://doi.org/10.1080/17508487.2016.1102754

Sigurðardóttir, A.K. (2017). Student-centred classroom environments in upper secondary school: Students’ ideas about good spaces for learning versus actual arrangements. In L. Woek Benade & M. Laurence Jackson (Eds.), Transforming Education: Design & Governance in Global Contexts (pp. 183–197). Singapore: Springer.
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-5678-9_12

3.3. The use of digital technologies and social media in secondary education must be carefully structured and reflexively adapted to finding a balance between ensuring all students equal educational access to learning-relevant content and participation in learning-relevant classroom discourse.

MOST IMPORTANT REFERENCES 3.3:

Blikstad-Balas, M. (2012). Digital literacy in upper secondary school – What do students use their laptops for during teacher instruction? Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 7(2), 81–96.
https://www.idunn.no/dk/2012/02/digital_literacy_in_upper_secondary_school_-_what_do_studen

All references 3.3:

Blikstad-Balas, M. (2012). Digital literacy in upper secondary school – What do students use their laptops for during teacher instruction? Nordic Journal of Digital Literacy, 7(2), 81–96.
https://www.idunn.no/dk/2012/02/digital_literacy_in_upper_secondary_school_-_what_do_studen

Dalland, C. & Klette, K. (2016). Individual teaching methods: Work plans as a tool for promoting self-regulated learning in lower secondary classroom. Education Inquiry, 7(4), 381- 404.
https://doi.org/10.3402/edui.v7.28249